Monthly ArchiveSeptember 2019

"Who is this, coming from Edom, from Botzrah with clothing stained crimson, so magnificently dressed, so stately in his great strength? “It is I, who speak victoriously, I, well able to save.” Isaiah 63:1

Naomi– Birth and Redemption

Yoel Halevi No Comments


The article analyzes Naomi’s character development in the Book of Ruth. The narrative begins with Naomi’s tragic loss of her husband and sons in Moab, setting the stage for her transformation from a dependent figure to a respected leader. The exposition explores key verses, highlighting Naomi’s evolving role within her family and the Judahite community. Notably, Naomi takes on traditionally masculine responsibilities, guiding her daughters-in-law and asserting familial rights. The analysis delves into the nuanced relationship between Naomi and Ruth, emphasizing Naomi’s role as a mother and caregiver. The narrative unfolds with Naomi’s strategic support of Ruth’s actions, showcasing her strength and wisdom. The adoption of Ruth’s child and public recognition further solidified Naomi’s leadership and matriarchal status. The article concludes by underscoring the significance of Naomi’s journey as a compelling tale of resilience, familial bonds, and the formidable strength of women in the face of adversity within the Book of Ruth.


Yoel Halevi No Comments

The term “Omer” has its roots in ancient Semitic languages, specifically Hebrew. It stems from the root word “amar” or “ûmâr,” which means “to heap” or “to gather.” This word was used to denote a measurement of grain in ancient agricultural societies.

In the context of Leviticus 23, the Omer refers to a specific quantity of barley grain that was offered as a sacrifice in the Temple during the festival of Passover. This offering marked the beginning of the counting of the Omer towards the festival of Shavuot. 

Rituals of Reconciliation: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Atonement Practices

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The etymology of “Kippur” unveils a profound connection between ancient Near Eastern cultures, shedding light on shared beliefs and practices surrounding purification and atonement. Rooted in the Akkadian term “kapāru” and derived from the Hebrew root כ.פ.ר (k.p.r), the word “Kippur” encapsulates notions of expiation, forgiveness, and reconciliation. Across the ancient Near East, rituals of purification and atonement were paramount, serving as bridges between the mortal and divine realms, ensuring spiritual purity, and restoring cosmic harmony.

Chametz and Matzah

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Part 1

What is Chametz?

When it comes to the process of leavening dough using sourdough and yeast, both methods work through a similar principle: fermentation. However, they achieve this fermentation through different mechanisms.

Yeast: Yeast is a single-celled organism, typically Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which consumes sugars present in the dough and produces carbon dioxide (CO2) and alcohol as byproducts. This process is called alcoholic fermentation. The CO2 gas gets trapped in the dough, causing it to rise.

Bird Migration in Israel-overview 

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Bird Migration in Israel-overview 


While the Bible contains limited direct references to bird migration, various verses allude to the seasonal movements of birds, highlighting their instinctual behavior and God’s providential care. The Talmudic literature further explores the topic, noting the migratory habits of birds and their significance within Jewish tradition. Academic studies have examined these themes, analyzing the ecological context of avian migration in the ancient Near East and its cultural implications. 

chukat, Chuqat, parah, red cow, red heifer, the red cow, this weeks torah portion, Torah Portion

How red do I need to be?

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The Red Heifer ritual is a cornerstone of Jewish religious tradition, meticulously outlined in the Hebrew Bible within Numbers 19:1-22. This ancient ritual involves the sacrifice of a red heifer—a young, unblemished female cow—and the utilization of its ashes in a purification process. Beyond its practical applications, the ritual holds profound symbolic and theological significance within Jewish thought, reflecting principles of purity, atonement, and anticipation of redemption.

Book of Ester chapters 1-2

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Barley Conditions in Israel March 2024 (Adar 5784)

Yoel Halevi One comments

Definitions related to barley development observations according to the following:

Stages of Growth after Heading



            Soft Dough


First Edible Stage for Humans

            Aviv Stage (אָבִיב) –          Filled with Starch/Firm, can be parched in fire

            Karmel Stage (כַּרְמֶל)?

            Harvest Ready –              Kernal Hard (not dividable with thumbnail)


  1. Primary remarks are based on observations of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). Modern agricultural barley (Hordeum vulgare – two and six row) and wheat fields were also checked and compared.
  • A detailed but schematic description of the route followed for observing barley development is included for the sake of transparency so that everyone can understand the evidence more clearly.

“Ancient Calendars: Insights from Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Levant”

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This paper provides a comprehensive overview of ancient calendars from Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Levant, highlighting their structures, functions, and cultural significance. It explores the Egyptian calendar, characterized by its lunar-solar system and ties to the Nile’s annual flooding. The Babylonian calendar, with its innovative intercalary months, is examined for its role in religious festivals and administrative activities. The Rabbinic calendar is discussed in its Jewish religious context, focusing on its 19-year cycle and intercalation practices. The Phoenician, Emar, Aramaean/Syrian, and Qumran calendars are also analyzed, shedding light on their lunar-solar patterns and regional variations. Through archaeological evidence, epigraphy, and literary sources, this paper reveals the methods used in the ancient world for using calendars and their vital roles in organizing time.

Introduction to the book of Ester

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In this discussion we address the themes of the book of Ester and how to understand the book in the setting of the Persian era.

How is the Narrative built?

Who are the characters?

Is there an historical event we can find in antiquity which resembles the story of Ester?

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